"We are a collective geezer." Uffish, to Katya
Question #15911 posted on 06/21/2005 3:01 a.m.
Q:

Dear 100 Hour Board,

I recently just ordered a subscription to farms.byu.edu thinking that I would have access to a huge library of research on the book of mormon. it was kind of a heat of the moment purchase. I was wondering what exactly I just spent 25 dollars on, because as far as I can tell, I could access the same articles when I wasn't a member as I can now and I'm kind of dissappointed. Maybe you can make it sound like less of a waste of my money. Thanks

- Mahonri

A: Dear Mahonri,

According to the FARMS website, subscribers to the basic $25 subscription

receive print copies of the Insights newsletter and the Journal of Book of Mormon Studies. They also have access to the FARMS online archives of newsletters, journals, The FARMS Review, selected papers and books, video, audio, and a 20% discount on FARMS products through participating bookstores.


So beyond the normal website access, you can get a discount on FARMS products, and you'll receive actual copies of their newsletter and journal in the mail. As for website access, according to Valerie Merrell over at FARMS, the newest articles are available for subscribers only. So although most of the articles you can access now are articles you were able to access before, there are a few additional articles that are now available to you as a subscriber.

I hope that you enjoy your membership!

-Leibniz
Question #15910 posted on 06/21/2005 3:01 a.m.
Q:

Dear 100 Hour Board,

I was playing boggle with some friends the other night, and we got a round with no vowels. Now we're all wondering--what are the odds of that?

-boggled

A: Dear boggled-

I took my standard Boggle game out and counted the number of vowels on each die. (I included the two 'Y' sides and 'Qu' as vowels.) One die has no vowels, two dice have only one, six have two, five have three, and two have four. The probablilties of rolling conosonants for each of these groups is 6:6, 5:6, 4:6, 3:6, and 2:6. Multiply the consonant probabilities of all the dice together, and you saw something that happens about once every 4884 games of Boggle.

-The Franchise
Question #15909 posted on 06/21/2005 3:01 a.m.
Q:

Dear 100 Hour Board,

A friend of mine wants us to go dancing before she leaves down. Specifically, she wants to go clubbing. Are there any clubs in Salt Lake, playing either Latin or hiphop on Friday nights, that won't be completely scandalous? I know, I know. Not the wholesomest atmosphere. But she really wants to go dancing, and my clubbin' connections are out of town and can't tell me where I should go to avoid (as much as possible) the drugs and sex. Please help!

-just wanna dance

A: Dear just wanna dance,

If you're into Latin, your absolute best bet is BYU Salsa Club. I love their dances. There's a free one in the RB this Friday night. Go to http://groups.yahoo.com/group/byu_salsa/ for more details on Salsa Club events. Also, this Friday night there will be a big dance at Seven Peaks playing both hip hop and Latin music. That one's not free, but still probably won't be too scandalous. If you want dancing in Salt Lake, Mambo (http://www.mamboslc.com) is the Latin place to go on Friday nights. The 16 & up floor only plays reggaeton & is mostly full of crazy vatos, so if you want good dancing or good Latin music you'll have to go to the 21 & up floor. Of course, they serve alcohol, so that can create quite a bit of sketchiness if people around you are drinking. If you go there, I'd say bring a boy with for protection or to keep any creepy people away. Sometimes Café Del Sol on Canyon Road also has Latin dances on Friday nights, but I've never been able to get into one since they're always so crowded.

If you want to go out Saturday, there's a free salsa dance at Gualberto's (across from Movies 8) starting at 11pm, or Trolley Square (700 E 600 S) and Mambo (3620 S State) both have Latin dancing. There's a new Latin club in Sugarhouse called Karamba at 1051 E 2100 S, but I've never been there so I can't tell you much about it other than the fact that they serve alcohol and are open both Friday and Saturday nights.

If you want to stick to an environment with LDS standards, I would check out http://www.ldsdanceinfo.com. They sponsor dances every Friday night at the Copperview Community Center in Midvale.

As for hip hop clubs, I know of several. Unfortunately, I don't think I would recommend any to you based on things sketchy things I've heard about them or the sketchy guys old roommates have brought home from them. If you want to stay away from most of the scandalousness, I would recommend that you stick to either Latin clubs or dances such as those put on by Salsa Club, Seven Peaks or ldsdanceinfo.com. Wherever you decide to go, I hope you have a safe and fun time!

-Traviesa
Question #15906 posted on 06/21/2005 3:01 a.m.
Q:

Dear 100 Hour Board,

I went mud wrestling for the first time in my life recently at Rock Canyon Park. While I thoroughly enjoyed myself, there was one downfall: the mud smelled awful!!! A lot like sewage, actually. Do I need to be worried about catching some terrible disease from frolicking through sewage-y mud? What caused it to reek so badly? Do you know if it was human or other sewage if it was indeed that? Sorry this is kind of disgusting.

-Usually zestfully clean

A: Dear usually zestfully clean,

That is really foul and I am sorry to hear of your experience. Who knows how much sewage runoff there was in the particular mudpit within which you rolled. The Board is not equipped with a forensics lab and you have sent us no sample. I have pasted a link with information on sewage spills. Assuming the mud contained some sewage, the effects are probably not as strong.

Warning: not for the weak of stomach
http://www.workershealth.com.au/facts042.html

-la bamba
Question #15903 posted on 06/21/2005 3:01 a.m.
Q:

Dear 100 Hour Board,

Could you help me find the English translation of Falco's songs "America" and "Tango the Night"?

- Amadeus

A: Dear Rock me,

From www.mann-electronics.de/falcoworld/falco-calling/translat.htm:

America

The story is like this:
Everyone knows
It obviously began
It was with rock and roll music,
Not always easy in this country
What sits in me- is white and spurting -
Is completely clear to me.
Although I do drink Whiskey and sing since I was in the USA
People there say "Falco you are wonderful"
I don't take them very seriously
While they buy my records which they would buy anyway
It doesn't bother me
The typical in me - I am not a type- I am high and I am low
At one time going one way, another the opposite.
You have to take me as I am
I tell you straight
Show me a nice foot (a girl's), and I'll be there!

America, can you believe how much I'm missing you
America, can you believe how much I'm missing you

Der Spiegel says: "Vienna is in"
And if they don't know, who does?
And if Mr Smith has a bald head, let's go and sell him a comb..

The man was thick, the girl was slick, so he went and asked
"What's your name?"
"I'll take 2000, cash", the girl says. [sorry, word-play on the English & German, can't be translated)

You have to take us as we are
We tell you straight
Show us the next president and we'll be there
... or not

America, can you believe how much I'm missing you
America, can you believe how much I'm missing you

"I would like to have that wonderful Wiener Schnitzel"
Give him a 'Polnische in a Wachauer' (basically something like a hot dog)
"Yeah, that's really great"
But it is quite clear,
The man says "That'll be100"
No, schilling, not dollars,
Let's not overdo it

America ... La la la - la la - la la


I can't find a good translation for "Tango the Night," so I'll give it a shot:

Tango The Night

Schwung gepflegt im Séparée - Well-groomed swing(ers) in a separate (something)
Mit Champagner ein Couplé - A couple with champagne
Nur deine Leidenschaft - Only your passion
Der Leib - die Glut - die Kraft - Body - Fire - Force

I kiss your lips
I hold you tight
Your body's swaying in the pale moonlight
We dance until the break of day
We'll tango the night away
Olé

Was weißt denn du, was Liebe ist, What do you know, what love is
Wenn alles du beim Tanz vergißt - When you give everything in a dance
Nur deine Leidenschaft - Only your passion
Der Leib - die Glut - die Kraft - Body - Fire - Force


I kiss you lips
I hold you tight
Your body's swaying in the pale moonlight
We dance until the break of day
We'll tango the night away
Olé

Ein téte-á-téte im Séparée - A one-on-one (encounter) in a separate (something)
Mit Champagner ein Couplé - A couple with champagne
Olé

I kiss your lips
I hold you tight
Your body's swaying in the pale moonlight
We dance until the break of day
We'll tango the night away
Olé

I kiss your lips
I hold you tight
Your body's swaying in the pale moonlight
We dance until the break of day
We'll tango the night away
Olé

We'll tango the night away
Olé

- Katya
Question #15898 posted on 06/21/2005 3:01 a.m.
Q:

Dear 100 Hour Board,

Why Y? and why not B? U would just be silly, but why not B instead of Y?

- Curious Physics Minor

A: Dear CPM,

Once upon a time, someone high up thought it would be a good idea to spell "BYU" on the mountain in big white letters. School spirit and all that. So they started putting it up, and being the brilliant planners that they were, started with the "Y" to make sure everything was centered correctly. While the "Y" itself is the letter right in the middle, you may have noticed that the "B" and the "U" haven't yet shown up. As it turns out, the project was a whole lot more expensive and labor-intensive than anyone expected, and so they just left the "Y." Until then, most people referred to BYU as BYU. But the letter on the mountain meant we could shave a whole syllable off of the cumbursome BYU title. We can now call it "The Y." And that's what people did.

Interesting bit of side trivia- up until very recently, maintaining the Y has been the job of new freshmen. During orientation, they were recruited to form a bucket brigade up the trail to repaint, and any extra boulders had to be carried up by hand, too. Welcome to BYU, kids. It's time for a service project. Well, not anymore. I hear something similar goes on, but the people who do it aren't freshman automatically signed up for a service project.

-Uffish Thought
Question #15897 posted on 06/21/2005 3:01 a.m.
Q:

Dear 100 Hour Board,

This is my second (and third) food question within the last 2 weeks. I apologize for my food obsession, but being from the east coast, I miss the variety of foods that do not appear here.

I have been praising the French Bakery gods for bringing a delightful French Bakery to Orem. But my question is, are there any Italian bakeries around? I am dying for a canoli.

I might as well throw one more food question in (2, 2 for the price of 1!)... I'm also looking for a place that sells scones and clotted cream--a British tea room maybe. Are there any in existence around Utah Valley or SLC?

Thanks!

--The food obsessed applebrown

A: Dear applebrown,
British products can be purchased at the London Market, 563 South 700 East in Salt Lake City. Phone: 801-531-7074. They even have a website at thelondonmarket.net. I've only been there once, unfortunately. Check it out and see if they have anything that you are interested in. And if you go, pick me up some McVittie's caramel biscuits while you are at it. :)
-Duchess
A: Dear The food obsessed applebrown,

I can deeply sympathize. I miss Mike's Pastry in Boston more than I can express. Speaking of Mike's that is one option to satisfy your cannoli cravings. At http://www.mikespastry.com/ you can order cannoli's (some assembly required). Those cannolis are fantastic.

Another option is that Costco used to carry an assemble your own mini cannoli kit. They weren't too shabby but certainly not the best.

Lastly, I have heard great things about the cannolis and other pastries at Kneaders. There's one in Provo (295 West 1230 North) and one in Orem (1990 North State St.).

I need to make a trip over there myself.

-Pa Grape
Question #15896 posted on 06/21/2005 3:01 a.m.
Q:

Dear 100 Hour Board,

In Joseph Smith History in the Pearl of Great Price 1:36, Joseph said the Angel Moroni quotes part of the third chapter of Malachi, and later in verse 41 he said that there were other scriptures that Moroni quoted. Are there any alternate accounts of these four visits of Moroni? Do we know which verses of 3rd Malachi that Moroni quoted? Do we know of any of the other scriptures that Moroni quoted?

- Patata Brava

A: Dear Patata Brava,

There are four accounts of Moroni's visitations to Joseph when he revealed the existence of the plates. I started going through them and making a list, but I came across a great article in Gospelink. It is in Studies in the Scriptures, Vol. 2: The Pearl of Great Price by Kent P. Jackson. That discusses your question in a fair bit of detail. Scroll down to the section entitled "The Scriptures of the Restoration". If you are able to use Gospelink, just click here: http://gospelink.com/library/doc?doc_id=274864&highlight_p=1.

For the benefit of those who don't have Gospelink, here is the list of scriptures as listed in the article:
Malachi 3
Malachi 4:1
Malachi 4:2-4
Malachi 4:5-6
Isaiah 11
Acts 3:22-23
Joel 2:28-32

Those scriptures are mentioned by Joseph directly. The following scriptures are mentioned in second hand accounts written by Oliver Cowdery:
1 Con 127-29
Isa. 29:14
Isa. 29:13
Isa. 29:11
Psalm 100:1-2
Psalm 107:1-7
Psalm 144:11-12
Joel 2:28
Psalm 144:13
Psalm 146:10
Isa. 1:7
Isa. 1:23-24
Deut. 32:23-24
Isa. 1:25-26
Psalm 107:7
Isa. 2:1-4
Isa. 4:5-6
Jer. 31:27-28
Jer. 31:32-33
Jer. 30:18-21
Jer. 31:1
Jer. 31:8
Isa. 43:6
Jer. 50:4-5
Jer. 31:9
Jer. 31:6
Isa. 2:3
Isa. 11:15-16
Jer. 16:16
Deut. 32:43

So we don't know specifically which parts of Malachi 3 were quoted but the article notes that verses 1-4 seem significant and relevant and seem to emphasize similar topics emphasized in other specific references that Joseph says Moroni talked about. I really suggest getting the article from Gospelink as it reallly discusses the significance of the passages Joseph specifically references.

-Pa Grape
Question #15882 posted on 06/21/2005 3:01 a.m.
Q:

Dear 100 Hour Board,

Suppose the world were much the same as it is now - still rotating at the same rate, still just as far from the sun, etc. - but it were flat instead of spherical. What would be different?

- Amalthea

A: Dear Amalthea,

That depends. Is it rotating with the axis cutting across the flat disk of the Earth (like spinning a quarter), or is it rotating with the axis going through the middle (like a CD or an LP)?

Spinning like a quarter:

Only two time zones. All of one side of the earth sees the sun at the same time and at the same angle.

Spinning like a CD:

It would be very cold. All of our sunlight would hit us at a pretty steep angle--in fact, we'd be like the north and south poles in that we'd only get sunlight for 6 months out of the year.

Gravity would probably be noticeably stronger near the center of the disk in both situations. I can't really think of any other things--I'm sure there would be a lot of differences, but they're not really coming to mind right now.

- Katya
Question #15880 posted on 06/21/2005 3:01 a.m.
Q:

Dear 100 Hour Board,

how hard is it to get into the music program? i heard its really competitive. Do you know compared to other majors how hard the program is?

- maestro in training

A: Maestro,

Here's a brief run-down of what to expect.

You must audition. If they think you're good enough, they admit you as a "general music major" for your first year. During that first year, you take your general classes such as theory, sight singing, dictation as well as any pre-reqs for your degree program. You must get at least a C in all those classes.

At the end of your first year, you have some kind of mysterious "jury" process you must go through. (I picture it to be something like what Harry goes through at the beginning of Order of Phoenix.) If you do well enough in this, congrats. You're in.

For more info, call the school of music advisement center at 422-3777.

- Beemer Boy
Question #15877 posted on 06/25/2005 3:01 a.m.
Q:

Dear 100 Hour Board,

Why is it that somedays I am constantly hungry, whereas other days I hardly eat anything, and I am not doing anything drastically different? Bodies are weird.

- Adam

A: Dear Adam,

Hunger mechanisms are based on a large number of things, which include (but are not limited to) calorie need, hormone level, mental status, and many other things. If you are exercising a lot more than usual on a particular day, then you are more likely to be hungry. This is a mechanism the body has established to help the body stay at an optimal energy level (and to keep you from wasting away.) Hormone and other chemical balances also change your appetite by supressing or increasing metabolism. Also, your mental status is related to your appetite. Have you ever been very sad or upset to the point were you had no appetite? This is an example of how your mental status could change your rate of metabolism and/or your appetite. For example: right now I am in class until 2 pm every day. Due to the intensity of some of my classes, I am so busy that I rarely think about food. It will be about 3 or 4 pm before I remember that I am incredibly hungry. These, and many other factors, can change your body's reaction to food, and also the way you think about food, all of which ultimately cause your hunger mechanisms to fluctuate.

Aspen
Question #15872 posted on 06/21/2005 3:01 a.m.
Q:

Dear 100 Hour Board,

I've never used a serger before. Would one be able to sew through about 5/8" of fabric? If so, is there a serger on campus I can use?

- Seven layers in one seam! (three upholstery, one gathered upholstery, one fleece, one gathered fleece, one crepe)

A: Dear Seven layers,

My HFAC costume shop source says: no. A regular surger would not be able to sew through that much material, although an industrial surger might. She suggests that you try each layer separately to see how many layers it will do, but that it definitely won't do all seven.

As to whether or not there is a surger on campus--there are sewing machines for student use in both Deseret Towers and Heritage Halls, but I don't know if there are any surgers.

- Katya
Question #15864 posted on 06/21/2005 3:01 a.m.
Q:

Dear 100 Hour Board,

Why do the Jews believe that Elijah will come during the Passover? I can find no part of the prophecies of Elijah's return that would connect him to the Passover. How did this become a part of their tradition?

- Religiously Inquisitive

A: Dear Religiously Inquisitive,

As found at http://www.johnpratt.com/items/docs/lds/easter/elijah.html:
The origin of the tradition that Elijah would return at Passover seems to have been lost in antiquity. It has been suggested that Elijah's return was associated with Passover, the feast commemorating the redemption of Israel, because it would herald the coming of the Messiah, the Redeemer of Israel.

Whatever the origin of the association of Elijah with Passover, the tradition was proved correct when Elijah did return at Passover in 1836. However, he did not return at the Passover meal, when the cup was offered on the evening of Friday, April l. Instead, he returned on Easter Sunday, the second day of Passover, the day of the presentation of the firstfruits of the harvest.

On Easter Sunday, 3 April 1836, the Prophet Elijah returned during Passover and fulfilled Malachi's prophecy (see Mal. 4:5-6) when he restored priesthood keys in the Kirtland Temple.

The long-awaited return of Elijah occurred in the Kirtland Temple on Easter Sunday, 16 Nisan, 3 April 1836. First the Savior appeared, followed by Moses, then Elias, and finally Elijah.
I also sent an email to Victor Ludlow who is quite the specialist in Jewish studies in BYU's religious department asking about the origin of the tradition. He responded: "I've tried as well with rabbi friends, Talmudic sources, Jewish historians, etc. and nobody seems to know when and how it originated - probably sometime during the inter-testament period during the time of the Persian rule of Palestine." It looks like you have found another question that we may not know the answer to until we read the FAQ's on the Pearly Gates (see Board Question #15482).

-Pa Grape
Question #15859 posted on 06/24/2005 3:01 a.m.
Q:

Dear 100 Hour Board,

What are the best exercises to tone your lower abdominal area? It seems like crunches, sit-ups, etc only work your upper abs.

- Celery Lover

A: Dear Celery Lover,

Many regular abdominal exercises work the entire core, but here are some specific for lower abs:
1. Lie flat on your back and raise your legs
2. Lie flat with legs strait and pull your head up (like a regular crunch) but keep your head strait and imagine a string from your chin to the ceiling
3. Reverse curls: using an elvated bench with your legs stable (your upper body kind of hangin over) and doing a crunch. Yeah, those suck (they hurt more cuz you are going against gravity.

Essentially one of the best things to do for your lower abs is to simply flex it while you are doing any ab exercises. Imagine someone is going to punch you in the stomach. Seriously though, its all about working the entire core--its the healthiest and most effective way.

- Princess
Question #15857 posted on 06/21/2005 3:01 a.m.
Q:

Dear 100 Hour Board,

When did the "Council of the Twelve" become the "Quorum of the Twelve" and why?

-Not One of the Twelve

A: Dear Not One of the Twelve,

That governing body has always been known as the Quorum of the Twelve as referenced in D&C 107:23-24
23 The twelve traveling councilors are called to be the Twelve Apostles, or special witnesses of the name of Christ in all the world-thus differing from other officers in the church in the duties of their calling.

24 And they form a quorum, equal in authority and power to the three presidents previously mentioned.
Or as http://www.lightplanet.com/mormons/basic/organization/priesthood/quorum_12.htm explains it:
Several titles refer to the body of the Twelve apostles: the Quorum of the Twelve, the Council of the Twelve, or simply the Twelve. The designation Quorum of the Twelve is the scriptural title and the formal name used by the First Presidency in presenting the Twelve to Church members for their sustaining vote. The designation Council of the Twelve is used commonly in Church publications and in communicating with persons of other faiths.
So truly, while Quorum is the more accurate term, Council is also in contemporary usage. It's simply less formal.

-Pa Grape
Question #15853 posted on 06/23/2005 3:01 a.m.
Q:

Dear 100 Hour Board,

What are my options for connecting a laptop without a S-Video port to a TV?

- No one in particular

A: Dear No one in particular,

You need one of these, or something similar. http://www.aver.com/products/comptv_QuickPlay.shtml Of course, this is a fairly hi-end solution, and cheaper ones can be found, however this product is available at the BYU Bookstore.

-cubic nerd
Question #15836 posted on 06/30/2005 3:01 a.m.
Q:

Dear 100 Hour Board,

In some foreign languages (specifically French, since I speak it) certain verbs use a different auxillary for their past tenses (i.e House of être/Mr and Mrs. Vandertramp). Can this ever legitimately happen in English? Like, why do we sing "The Lord is come" in Joy to the World and not "The Lord has come"?

- I am become very interested in this

A: Dear interested,

Yes, it can. From my classical understanding of grammar, the distinction is that "house of être" verbs are more like adjectives than like verbs, so they take the auxiliary that goes with adjectives. Allow me to illustrate:

J'ai vendu (la chaise). Je suis arrivée. Je suis américaine.

Notice that not only does the second verb take the same auxiliary as the adjective, it also agrees with the subject--just like the adjective.

This merry little digression aside, the verbs in English that can take "to be" are more or less of the same class as the French verbs--intransitive verbs of motion. This is why you can say "He is risen" instead of "He has risen." (You may point out that the first one refers to a change of state, not to a past tense of a verb. This is precisely my point--since there is no direct object, the verb affects only the subject.)

I'll let Melyngoch deal with it from a more modern perspective.

- Katya
A: Dear Way to be become,

There is a nearly-extinct type of verb in English called an unaccusative. Unaccusative verbs are nearly always verbs of motion; they're distinct because they don't assign any type of semantic role to the subject of the sentence. In a sentences such as

Esperanza sacked Troy.

we know that Esperanza is the person doing the sacking, the agent of the sacking -- that's the role that Esperanza gets from sacking. However, unaccusative verbs can take a subject which is "expletive" or semantically empty.

Herakles goes.
There goes Herakles.

Herakles refers to a person; There refers to nothing -- not even, in this case, a direction. Unaccusatives assign no semantic role to the left; they assign it exclusively to the right.

Unaccusative verbs are also the verbs which can be put in the past perfect using be instead of have. Sometimes, because many verbs of motion no longer behave as unaccusatives in modern English, this results in an antiquated-sounding structure, such as The Lord is come. Other times it seems perfectly normal: Zerubabel is gone.

As far as I can tell, the semantic roles are the reason. Be is the inflection for progressive verbs because it suggests a state. Verbs of motion, when in the perfect tense, are fundamentally change-of-state verbs, so it makes sense for them to take be. Other radical state verbs, like rain, also take non-semantic subjects: It's raining.

-A. A. Melyngoch
Question #15820 posted on 06/21/2005 3:01 a.m.
Q:

Dear 100 Hour Board,

Last Christmas, my uncle played a song for me (on his iPod- he'd fit right in on campus). It was sung by Alison Krauss, and all I can remember is that it's a really sad song about this guy who goes hunting but ends up shooting his love instead. Do you have any idea what the name of this song is?

- Your Ain True Love

A: Dear Your Ain True Love,

I browsed the lyrics of every (as far as I can tell) Alison Krause song and didn't find any song that matched your description. Your best bet to find out what song it was will probably be to call your uncle as no one I talked to could place the song either.

-Pa Grape
Question #15516 posted on 06/21/2005 3:01 a.m.
Q:

Dear 100 Hour Board,

When you have a cut inside your mouth, what is the healing process as compared to a cut/wound outside the mouth? Obviously it never scabs...

- <shudder>

A: Dear Blank,

The process of wound healing is generally the same, whether in the mouth or elsewhere, but with a few small differences. Some of the differences in the mouth that researchers have noted are:
* earlier and greater phagocytic activity ( the removal of the clot and other junk);
* more rapid growth to the surface layer in the oral mucosa;
* better mucosal blood flow;
* moist surroundings allow better cell movement;
* warmer temperatures in the mouth;
* greater metabolic activity in the cells of the mouth;
* higher mitotic rate (that's the speed of cell division);
* and growth factors in saliva
These things make the cut heal faster.

Aspen
Question #15494 posted on 07/13/2005 3:01 a.m.
Q:

Dear 100 Hour Board,

Two questions -- and I DID check the archives so I hope I was thorough...

1. I understood that once an artist had died, there was no owner for the copyright, and many items became property of the public, or something like that. This explained why the bargain bins always have a million Motzart, Bach, and Ella Fitzgerald CDs selling really cheap. If this is the case, is there anywhere on the internet that I can find free downloads of, say, old Bing Crosby songs?
2. While doing my research, I found an archival question that confused me. (Board Question #7984) Part of it says, "If you got the MP3 from a friend or associate or some other means, you do not own the right to play that song and it is therefore a 'pirated' or illegal copy (even if they actually own the CD)." Another part reads, "Getting a 'copied CD' from your friend is also, generally, not illegal. The US copyright laws allow you to copy music for your friends. It actually says that."
Now, that seems confusing and contradictory to a small mind such as mine. If it's not, can you explain why?

Thanks,
Tara*Star

A: Dear Tara*Star,

1--This isn't necessarily true. Music (and other published works) falls under the public domain (which means you can copy it as you like without infringing copyright) if it was published in or before 1922. Copyright with anything can get a little tricky. For instance, the composer or author of a work doesn't always own the copyright. If the creator produces the work for a company, the company owns the copyright. (For example, two short stories and half of a lesson manual that I wrote are under copyright by Independent Study because I was on the clock when I wrote the material for them.) Composers and authors can also sell rights to their work. So even after the creator dies, a company may still own the rights to the work.

When considering who owns copyright, you need to look at the different parts of works that are copyrighted. For instance, on your favorite CD, the recording could be owned by one party, the music by another, and the lyrics by a third. There are also performance rights and publishing rights, which can be further divided into American rights and world rights, etc.

Music copyright is especially odd. Anything before 1922 is unprotected. Things published between 1922 and 1972 are protected for 75 years from their copyright (which is fixed as 1972, per Title 17). The Bono legislation added an additional 20 years to that.

Much of the information above was obtained from http://www.copyright.gov/title17/

2--Sharing music with friends. The two accounts you read on the Board are both correct. It is legal to share your music with your friends, if by "share" you mean "make a mixed CD" for one or two friends and if by "friends" you mean "people you actually know." However, if you are mass distributing music or selling music to which you do not own the copyright, you are in violation of the law.

Other bits of file-sharing wisdom:
Don't mess with movies. The copyright owners will come after you and ruin you. If you download, don't share files or make them visible on the Internet. The Board does not, of course, encourage illegal file-sharing.

Also, to stay within the law in your copyright use, you will want to continue to update your knowledge frequently, as the laws are continually changing.

Cheers,

Ambrosia
Question #15262 posted on 06/24/2005 3:01 a.m.
Q:

Dear 100 Hour Board,

I am thinking of a book in which a character sings a line from a song: "Whooooooo is Sylvia? Whaaaaat is she?" Now, I've done my preliminary research and I know that this is from Shakespeare's "Two Gentlemen of Verona," and that there is a famous setting of this poem to music by Franz Schubert. I also know that this phrase is the subtitle to Edward Albee's Tony award-winning play "The Goat" (which, for anyone interested, is hilarious, though inappropriate). I just don't know what book this reference is in. This might be impossible for you to track down without further detail, so I'll give what I suspect is the answer: I think it comes from one of Enid Blyton's "Malory Towers" books. It is either in the scene where Darrell Rivers slaps June Johns in a practice room, where June might have been singing this song (?)(meaning it is in "Upper Fourth at Malory Towers") or it is some younger students making fun of Maureen's awful singing voice (meaning it is in "In the Fifth at Malory Towers"). I would, of course, just go find these books myself, but I don't have access to a library for a while, and, plus, I'm not positive that's where it's from. The powers of Google have failed me, and so I turn to you, O Almighty Board. Help me, please, before I lose my mind in wondering!

--Petra

A: Dearest, dearest Petra,

Do you know how difficult to come by are the books you mention? But I have them at last beside me, here where I toil day after day, and with them I have, also, bad news. The line "Whoooooo is Sylvia? Whaaaaat is she?" appears in neither one. June Johns is not singing in Upper Fourth at Malory Towers; she is playing scales on the piano. The song Maureen sings in In the Fifth at Malory Towers goes untitled, and the song which Connie and Bridget sing in response to Maureen's monstrous attempt also goes untitled, but is adjusted to "Here is MOIRA. HERE -- is SHE-E" when Moira walks in.

This, then, is my theory. It is entirely possible, and even moderately likely, that the song which Blyton had in mind for the Bridget/Connie debut was, indeed, "Who is Sylvia?" It certainly scans appropriately. Having read this in the faint and fading past and left it to degrade in the molder of your memory, you thereafter came upon the Albee play, with the line unaltered. Thereupon, you collapsed the two into a single reference within a single text.

That, or we were seven hundred hours too late, and you already lost your mind in wondering.

Cheers!

-A. A. Melyngoch